Friday, November 17, 2017

Powder Containing Extract of Green and Red Propolis a Possible Antimicrobial Agent

Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effect of hydroxyapatite containing Brazilian propolis

Biomed Mater. 2017 Nov 14

The aim of this work was to produce hydroxyapatite powder (HA) containing dry extract of green and red propolis, and to evaluate possible bactericidal activity of the materials in a short period of time through a fast release system.

The ethanolic extracts of green and red propolis (EEP) were incorporated into the material by spray drying. After release tests, powders containing dry EEP were characterized regarding the content of total phenolics and flavonoids. Materials characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by plate colony counting, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cytotoxicity of the materials was determined by the neutral red incorporation method. Materials showed apparently spherical morphology, indicating a decrease in the agglomeration degree with the propolis addition.

HA and propolis characteristic functional groups were observed in FTIR. Materials had higher release of phenolics and lesser amounts of flavonoids when compared to the EEP, with the higher amounts of flavonoids observed for HA with red propolis. The bactericidal effect for all materials was observed within the interval of 0.5 to 1 hour. All materials showed lesser inhibitory activity (MIC) and higher bactericidal activity (MBC) when compared to the EEP, with the best results attributed to HA with red propolis. The values of IC50 (concentration needed to inhibit 50% of the cell growth) obtained from the cytotoxicity assay for HA with green and red propolis lied between MIC and MCB.

Considering these results, it is suggested that HA with propolis may be used as a possible antimicrobial agent, inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, despite further in vivo biocompatibility should be investigated before using this material as a medical device with bactericidal potential.

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects

Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

Molecules. 2017 Nov 8;22(11). pii: E1928

Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG) neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats.

Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage). Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight) of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight) once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation.

The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels.

Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis.

The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products.

Wednesday, November 15, 2017

Antimicrobial Effect of Ginger, Garlic, Honey, and Lemon Extracts on Streptococcus mutans

J Contemp Dent Pract. 2017 Nov 1;18(11):1004-1008.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lemon, ginger, garlic, and honey extracts on Streptococcus mutans.


Commercially obtained honey, ginger, garlic, and lemon were included in the study to evaluate its efficacy in isolation and in combination against S. mutans. The efficacies of extracts were tested using well diffusion method, and its effect was evaluated by measuring the zone of inhibition around the well. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts was carried out individually and compared considering triplicates of all the extracts.


When individual comparison of the extracts was made, garlic showed greatest antimicrobial activity with a mean zone of inhibition (34.9 ± 0.58 mm) and honey showed least antimicrobial activity (0.5 ± 0.6 mm). When combinations of extracts were tested against S. mutans, lemon and garlic combination showed the greatest zone of inhibition (27.6 ± 0.43 mm) compared with other combinations, and ginger + lemon combinations showed the least zone of inhibition (12.6 ± 0.43 mm).


This study concluded that garlic showed a greatest antimicrobial effect against S. mutans when compared with other preparations individually and garlic and lemon showed greatest zone of inhibition in combination than other preparations.


Antibiotics and other chemical agents are mainly used to treat the common dental infections. However, due to the excessive use, it can result in antibiotic resistance. Hence, herbal medicines with medicinal values should be replaced with conventional methods.

Tuesday, November 14, 2017

Honey Polyphenols May Help Treat Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer, and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Beneficial roles of honey polyphenols against some human degenerative diseases: A review

Pharmacol Rep. 2017 Jul 4;69(6):1194-1205

Honey contains many active constituents and antioxidants such as polyphenols. Polyphenols are phytochemicals, a generic term for the several thousand plant-based molecules with antioxidant properties.

Many in vitro studies in human cell cultures as well as many animal studies confirm the protective effect of polyphenols on a number of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, pulmonary diseases, liver diseases and so on. Nevertheless, it is challenging to identify the specific biological mechanism underlying individual polyphenols and to determine how polyphenols impact human health. To date, several studies have attempted to elucidate the molecular pathway for specific polyphenols acting against particular diseases.

In this review, we report on the various polyphenols present in different types of honey according to their classification, source, and specific functions and discuss several of the honey polyphenols with the most therapeutic potential to exert an effect on the various pathologies of some major diseases including CVD, diabetes, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Monday, November 13, 2017

Royal Jelly as Skin Moisturizing Agent

10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid in Royal Jelly Extract Induced Both Filaggrin and Amino Acid in a Cultured Human Three-Dimensional Epidermis Model

Cosmetics 2017, 4(4), 48

Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural product which the honeybee secretes as a special diet for a queen bee. It is one of the natural products in which various functionalities, such as antibacterial effects, immunomodulating properties, and estrogen-like action, were reported.

We investigated the effect of the RJ extract on the moisturizing effect by topical application in humans. The stratum corneum moisture was increased significantly after four weeks by using the RJ extract lotion compared to placebo lotion. RJ extract contained a characteristic ingredient, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDAA), etc. However, the mechanism of stratum corneum moisture and its contributing ingredient have not yet been elucidated.

We have investigated the effects of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the free amino acids content in the stratum corneum using a cultured human three-dimensional epidermis model. Additionally, the effect of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the amounts of filaggrin (FLG) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were investigated at the mRNA level and by immunohistochemistry using a cultured human epidermis model. It was determined that 10H2DA increases the free amino acids in the stratum corneum of the cultured human epidermis model, and that it increased FLG on both the mRNA and protein levels. On the other hand, these actions are not observed by treatment of 10HDAA. The mRNA and protein level of AQP3 did not increase with 10H2DA or 10HDAA use.

It was thought that the increase in the amount of FLG and the increase in the free amino acids of the epidermis and the stratum corneum, respectively, by 10H2DA were participating in the moisturizing function of the stratum corneum by the continuous use of RJ extract lotion.

Sunday, November 12, 2017

New Product Uses Propolis, Bee Venom, Wax Moth Extract to Treat Joint and Tissue Pain

SustaFix LLC Created a Honey-Based Product for Treating Joint and Tissue Pain

November 10, 2017 --( A novel honey-based product for treating joint and tisssue pain has been created and manufactured in Atlanta, Georgia. SustaFix gel contains propolis extract, bee venom, bee extract, beeswax, cedar sap, olive oil, horse chestnut extract and wax moth extract. Additional ingredients embaded in product's formula include vitamins C, B1, and B5, which play role in strengthening the vein muscle walls and tissue regeneration. Other ingredients include substances that possess vasodilatory and painkilling properties. SustaFix's action is pointed at relieving the inflammation, eliminating pain and swelling of joints, and repressing the symptoms of arthritis and arthrosis.

The use of honey for medical purposes is known for decades as alternative or complementary medicine. Today it is gaining popularity not only in the United States, but Europe and Asia as well. According to a research, made by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine in 2007 (, almost 40 percent of adults in America use some form of alternative medicine. It is known that honey is widely used in treating a variety of medical conditions, including arthritis, joint a, promotes burn and wound healing, and helps in suppressing cough.

SustaFix beeswax gel smooth consistency makes it easily applicable on the affected areas. A small amount of the gel should be spread on the area of concern and then - gently massaged until its full absorption. Tube contains 100 ml substance, that should be applied once or twice a day depending on the severity of the condition.

Saturday, November 11, 2017

Propolis Prevents Biodegradation of Natural Rubber

Propolis as an antidegradant and biocidal agent for natural rubber

Journal of Applied Polymer Science

First published: 7 November 2017

The numerous applications of polymers in many areas of our lives make it necessary to protect them from aging. Increases in the safety and time of polymer material exploitation demands the application of antidegradants with broad scopes of action.

In this study, crude propolis, originating from two geographical regions of Poland, was used to protect peroxide-cured natural-rubber vulcanizates filled with silica or carbon black from degradation by oxygen, ozone, and microorganisms. Thermogravimetry analysis confirmed the stability of propolis under the curing conditions. From vulcametric torque measurements and determinations of the mechanical properties, we determined that the incorporation of propolis did not adversely affect the performance of the natural-rubber vulcanizates.

The addition of propolis to the rubber mix made the vulcanizates resistant to thermooxidative and ozone aging and protected them from biodegradation in soil and the action of microorganisms.

Friday, November 10, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture Helps Treat Lower Back Pain

Efficacy of Bee Venom Acupuncture for Chronic Low Back Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Sham-Controlled Trial

Toxins 2017, 9(11), 361

Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) is an effective treatment for chronic low back pain (CLBP) through the pharmacological effects of bee venom and the simultaneous stimulation of acupoints. However, evidence of its efficacy and safety in humans remains unclear.

Using a double-blind, randomized study, 54 patients with non-specific CLBP were assigned to the BVA and sham groups. All participants underwent six sessions of real or sham BVA for 3 weeks, in addition to administration of 180 mg of loxonin per day. The primary outcome, that is, “bothersomeness” derived from back pain, was assessed using the visual analog scale. Secondary outcomes included pain intensity, dysfunction related to back pain (Oswestry Disability Index), quality of life (EuroQol 5-Dimension), and depressive mood (Beck’s depression inventory). Outcomes were evaluated every week during the treatment period and followed up at weeks 4, 8, and 12.

After 3 weeks of the treatment, significant improvements were observed in the bothersomeness, pain intensity, and functional status in the BVA group compared with the sham group. Although minimal adverse events were observed in both groups, subsequent recovery was achieved without treatment.

Consequently, our results suggest that it can be used along with conventional pharmacological therapies for the treatment of CLBP.

Thursday, November 09, 2017

Charles Mraz Apitherapy Course and Conference (CMACC)

Theory In Practice, A Hands-On Approach

November 10-12 2017

The Redondo Beach Hotel

400 N. Harbor Drive

Redondo Beach, CA 90277


Bee Venom Component May Help Treat Hepatitis B

Medical Express, 11/7/2017

"We now have a drug that can knock down hepatitis B surface antigen and determine whether or not we can actually cure people with that," Dr. Lanford said.

The drug is delivered by subcutaneous (under the skin) injection. Scientists designed a molecule that delivers the medicine directly to the liver where it binds to a receptor. Then, another molecule that's derived from bee venom, helps break through membranes in the liver cells to deliver the medicine directly into the cytoplasm of the cells where it takes effect. The siRNA interferes with the expression of the HBV messenger RNA that produces the surface antigen...

Wednesday, November 08, 2017

Indian Propolis as a Potential Nutraceutical Candidate

Marker-based standardization and investigation of nutraceutical potential of Indian propolis

J Integr Med. 2017 Nov;15(6):483-494


Propolis, a resinous material collected by honey bees from various plants, has been explored globally for its medicinal and nutritional properties. However, research over Indian propolis is at infancy. This study was designed to investigate nutraceutical potential of Indian propolis.


In the present study, propolis extract was standardized with respect to markers caffeic acid phenethyl ester, caffeic acid, galangin, luteolin, curcumin, apigenin, pinocembrin and quercetin by new high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) methods. The physico-chemical analysis, residues analysis and in vitro antioxidant activity analysis were performed. Nutraceutical value was examined in terms of fats, fibers, minerals, proteins, polysaccharides, total carbohydrates, and energy value.


The developed HPTLC methods were found to be simple, reliable accurate, and the validation parameters were within the limits of the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. Macerated ethanolic extract of propolis (MEEP) was found to have polyphenolic content of (20.99 ± 0.24) mg/g and flavonoids content of (8.39 ± 0.04) mg/g. MEEP was found to comprise of (283.33 ± 51.31) g/kg fats, (30.07 ± 7.30) g/kg fibers, (102.56 ± 2.84) g/kg proteins and (389.36 ± 57.50) g/kg carbohydrate with a calorie value of (38 409.33 ± 6 169.80) kJ/kg. It was found that Indian propolis exhibited high nutraceutical value and showed absence of pesticides and heavy metals. The MEEP showed in vitro antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration of (12.24 ± 4.64) μg/mL.


The present work explores Indian propolis as a potential nutritious candidate. The proposed analytical methods can be applied in future screening of the quality of Indian propolis.

Tuesday, November 07, 2017

Honey May Help Eradicate Methicillin Sesistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)

Randomised controlled trial of honey versus mupirocin to decolonise patients with nasal colonisation of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and the lessons learned

J Hosp Infect. 2017 Oct 26. pii: S0195-6701(17)30582-0


To describe the learning experience from a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing the efficacy of medical-grade honey (MGH) with mupirocin 2% for the eradication of nasal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).


Patients colonised in the nose with MRSA and age ≥18 years were recruited. Participants received either one or two courses of MGH or mupirocin 2%, three times per day for five consecutive days.


The proportion of patients who were decolonised after one or two courses of treatment was not significantly different between MGH (18/42; 42.8%; 95% CI: 27.7% - 59.0%), and mupirocin 2% (25/44; 56.8%; 95% CI: 41.0% - 71.7%). Non-nasal MRSA colonisation was significantly associated with persistent nasal colonisation, (p = 0.003, OR, 5.186, 95% CI: 1.736 - 15.489). The rate of new acquisition of mupirocin resistance was 9.75%.


Although not significant, a decolonisation rate of 42.8% for MGH was impressive. In the absence of other effective agents, MGH has a potentially clinically important role. Our findings suggest this strategy, which has the potential to combat antimicrobial resistance, should be assessed in similar but larger studies. Studies of natural agents where there is no commercial patent and which are, therefore, unlikely to be funded by industry, need to be adequately funded by national and or international agencies so that well designed multi-centre RCTs can be carried out which may provide alternatives to antibiotics where resistance is a continuing challenge. The lessons learned may help guide future studies in determining realistic recruitment potential.

Monday, November 06, 2017

Malaysian Stingless Bee Honey High in Anti-Oxidants

Malaysian stingless bee and Tualang honeys: A comparative characterization of total antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry

LWT - Food Science and Technology
Volume 89, March 2018, Pages 1-9

• Malaysian Stingless bee honey has higher vitamin C, protein, polyphenols content than Tualang honey.
• LC-MS identified several phenolic compounds in stingless bee honey.
• Stingless bee honey had the highest anti-oxidant performance.
• Polyphenol content of stingless bee honey was associated with antioxidant activities.

This study aims to examine and compare the phenolic profile and antioxidant properties of two kinds of honey: Stingless bee honey (Kelulut honey) and Tualang honeys. Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, a total of eighteen phenolic acids and flavonoids have been identified in Kelulut honey samples. The phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity (three assays: DPPH, ABTS, and ORAC) for Kelulut and Tualang honeys were evaluated and statistically estimated. There was a significant (p < 0.05) phenolic content (228.09 ± 7.9–235.28 ± 0.6 mg gallic acid equivalent per kg) and flavonoid content (97.88 ± 10.1–101.5 ± 11.4 mg catechin equivalent per kg) in Kelulut honey samples. The Kelulut honey samples have demonstrated a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than Tualang honey samples. The correlations between antioxidant results and polyphenols content were found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). This research is the first to report data on phenolic profile and total antioxidant capacity of Kelulut honey. Our data suggest that Kelulut honey has prominent medical properties and could be exploited as a natural nutraceutical to treat free radical associated diseases.

Sunday, November 05, 2017

Review of Medicinal Uses of Honey

Towards a better understanding of the therapeutic applications and corresponding mechanisms of action of honey

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Nov 3

Honey is a bee-derived supersaturated solution composed of complex contents mainly glucose, fructose, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals. Composition of honey may vary due to the difference in nectar, season, geography, and storage condition. Honey has been used since times immemorial in folk medicine and has recently been rediscovered as an excellent therapeutic agent.

In the past, honey was used for a variety of ailments without knowing the scientific background and active ingredients of honey. Today, honey has been scientifically proven for its antioxidant, regulation of glycemic response, antitumor, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular potentiating agent. It can be used as a wound dressing and healing substance. Honey is different in color, flavor, sensory perception, and medical response. Apart from highlighting the nutritional facts of honey, we collected the finding of the published literature to know the mechanism of action of honey in different diseases.

This review covers the composition, physiochemical characteristics, and some medical uses.

Friday, November 03, 2017

Bee Venom Acupuncture May Help Treat Chronic Pain

Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats

Toxins 2017, 9(11), 351

Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor.

Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation.

Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA.

These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α2-adrenergic receptor.