Friday, August 31, 2012

Propolis an Alternative Antimicrobial for Root Canals

Antimicrobial Effect of Conventional Root Canal Medicaments vs Propolis against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans
J Contemp Dent Pract, 2012 May 1;13(3):305-9.
Aim: To evaluate and compare antimicrobial effect of various root canal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans.
Materials and methods: Six root canal medicaments: 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), EDTA, MTAD and propolis and three microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were used. These strains were inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. For the agar diffusion test (ADT), petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the microbial suspensions, using sterile swabs that were spread on the medium, obtaining growth injunction. Paper disks were immersed in the experimental solutions for 1 minute. Subsequently, four papers disks containing one of the substances were placed on the BHI agar surface in each agar plate. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The diameter of microbial inhibition was measured around the papers disks containing the substances. One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test were used. p-value >0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results: Propolis and other irrigants were found to be effective on C. albicans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. CHX and MTAD were found to be most effective amongst all the materials tested followed by propolis.
Conclusion: Propolis showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, S. aureus, C. albicans. It appears that propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans. 
Clinical significance: Propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans. It could be used as an alternative intracanal medicament.

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Mechanisms Underlying Beneficial Effects of Royal Jelly for Human Health

Towards Posttranslational Modification Proteome of Royal Jelly
Journal of Proteomics, Volume 75, Issue 17, 18 September 2012, Pages 5327–5341
Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretory protein from the hypopharyngeal glands of nurse honeybee workers, which contains a variety of proteins of which major royal jelly proteins (MRJPs) are some of the most important. It plays important roles both for honeybee and human. 
Each family of MRJP 1–5 displays a string of modified protein spots in the RJ proteome profile, which may be caused by posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of MRJPs. However, information on the RJ PTMs is still limited. Therefore, the PTM status of RJ was identified by using complementary proteome strategies of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), shotgun analysis in combination with high performance liquid chromatography-chip/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight/tandem mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Phosphorylation was characterized in MRJP 1, MRJP 2 and apolipophorin-III-like protein for the first time and a new site was localized in venom protein 2 precursor. Methylation and deamidation were also identified in most of the MRJPs. 
The results indicate that methylation is the most important PTM of MRJPs that triggers the polymorphism of MRJP 1–5 in the RJ proteome. 
Our data provide a comprehensive catalog of several important PTMs in RJ and add valuable information towards assessing both the biological roles of these PTMs and deciphering the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of RJ for human health.
Phosphorylation was found in four royal jelly (RJ) proteins. Methylation and deamidation were identified in most of major royal jelly proteins. Polymorphism of major royal jelly proteins is mainly caused by methylation. The results extend our knowledge on the biochemical natures of RJ.

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Thai Propolis Extract Shows Antimicrobial Activity

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Thai Propolis Extracted Using Ethanol Aqueous Solution
The potential of using propolis collected from Thailand as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent for food applications was investigated.
The propolis extract was prepared by using different ethanol aqueous solutions, including 30%, 40%, 50% and 70%. Total phenolic content (TPC), phenolic compound and antioxidant activity of the propolis were determined using Folin–Ciocalteau method, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, respectively.
The antimicrobial ability was tested against Staphylococcus aureus (TISTR 118), Salmonella enteritidis (DMST 17368), Escherichia coli (TISTR 780) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) using disc diffusion technique. The major phenolic compounds found in Thai propolis were rutin, quercetin and naringin. The TPC and DPPH radical scavenging activity increased with increasing ethanol concentration in the solvent.
Propolis extract showed antimicrobial activity, in terms of inhibitory zone for S. aureus and limited growth underneath paper discs, against all tested bacteria.

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Sweet Bee Venom Acupuncture a Potential Treatment for Nerve Damage

Sweet Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture for Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy
J Acupunct Meridian Stud, 2012 Aug;5(4):156-65 
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is sensory and motor nerve damage to the peripheral nervous system caused by chemotherapeutic agents. It often causes pain and other varying degrees of neuropathic symptoms accompanied by functional limitations and reduced quality of life. Currently, there is no standard treatment protocol for the treatment of CIPN.
In need of more research to develop new therapeutic options focusing on their safety, efficacy, and long-term sustained clinical effects, a pilot study of sweet bee venom pharmacopuncture (SBVP) for CIPN was conducted to build up preliminary efficacy data in the process of preparing for a future larger scale randomized controlled SBVP trial for CIPN.
We conducted a prospective case series by analyzing the clinical observations made of CIPN patients treated with SBVP. A total of 11 eligible consecutive CIPN patients who visited East-West Cancer Center from June 1, 2010, to February 28, 2011, were treated with total of six SBVP treatments given within the 3-week period. The outcomes were measured using World Health Organization Common Toxicity Criteria for Peripheral neuropathy (WHO grading system), Patient Neurotoxicity Questionnaire (PNQ), Visual Analogue System (VAS), and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) collected at the baseline, post-second, fourth, and the final treatment. Patients were followed 3 weeks into no intervention to determine the sustained effects of pharmacopuncture.
Both of the WHO CIPN grade and PNQ scores have shown a decrease in the level of neuropathy. VAS pain level has also shown a great decrease and improvement in patients' quality of life have also been detected though modest. Changes in WHO grade, VAS and Total HRQOL scores between the baseline and after the last treatment session were significant. Changes in WHO grade, Total PNQ, PNQ-sensory, VAS, Total HRQOL, and HRQOL-functional scores between the baseline and the 3-week follow-up were significant.
The positive result of the study supports the potential value of conducting a fully powered trial to explore further efficacy of SBVP for CIPN. However a single positive result within this pilot study must be interpreted with caution.

Monday, August 27, 2012

Malaysian Gelam Honey Has Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Gelam Honey Inhibits the Production of Proinflammatory, Mediators NO, PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-6 in Carrageenan-Induced Acute Paw Edema in Rats
Natural honey is well known for its therapeutic value and has been used in traditional medicine of different cultures throughout the world.
The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of Malaysian Gelam honey in inflammation-induced rats.
Paw edema was induced by a subplantar injection of 1% carrageenan into the rat right hind paw. Rats were treated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) Indomethacin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) or Gelam honey at different doses (1 or 2 g/kg, p.o.). The increase in footpad thickness was considered to be edema, which was measured using a dial caliper. Plasma and paw tissue were collected to analyze the production of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-6, as well as iNOS and COX-2. 
The results showed that Gelam honey could reduce edema in a dose-dependent fashion in inflamed rat paws, decrease the production of NO, PGE(2), TNF-α, and IL-6 in plasma, and suppress the expression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 in paw tissue. Oral pretreatment of Gelam honey at 2 g/kg of body weight at two time points (1 and 7 days) showed a significantly decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines, which was similar to the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug Indomethacin (NSAID), both in plasma and tissue. Thus, our results suggest that Gelam honey has anti-inflammatory effects by reducing the rat paw edema size and inhibiting the production of proinflammatory mediators. Gelam honey is potentially useful for treating inflammatory conditions.