Monday, November 30, 2015

Use of Diluted Bee Venom Injected at Acupuncture Points Reduces Pain

Repetitive acupoint treatment with diluted bee venom relieves mechanical allodynia and restores intraepidermal nerve fiber loss in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic mice

J Pain. 2015 Nov 18. pii: S1526-5900(15)00943-8

The chemotherapeutic agent, oxaliplatin produces a robust painful neuropathy resulting in the loss of intraepidermal nerve fibers (IENFs). We have previously reported that an acupoint injection of diluted bee venom (DBV) produces a temporary anti-allodynic effect in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic mice. Here we show a significant long-lasting antinociceptive effect of repetitive DBV acupoint treatment on oxaliplatin-induced mechanical allodynia and a significant reduction in the loss of IENFs.

DBV (0.1mg/kg, s.c.) was administered once a day for 18 days beginning on day 15 after oxaliplatin injection. Immunohistochemistry for IENF was performed on the glabrous skin of the hind-paw foot pad using the pan-neuronal marker, protein gene product 9.5. A temporary increase in mechanical threshold was observed 60 min after a single DBV injection into the Zusanli acupoint, and this effect was enhanced over time by repetitive DBV treatments. The basal mechanical threshold prior to daily DBV injection also increased from day 7 post-DBV injections, and peaked at day 14 after DBV treatment. Moreover, the oxaliplatin-induced loss of IENFs was significantly reduced in repetitive DBV-treated mice.

Repetitive pretreatment with the alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (5mg/kg, s.c.) completely prevented both the anti-allodynic effects and the increase in IENFs observed in repetitive DBV-treated mice.

Sunday, November 29, 2015

Malaysian Tualang Honey May Help Treat Leukemia

Antileukemic Effect of Tualang Honey on Acute and Chronic Leukemia Cell Lines

Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:307094. Epub 2015 Nov 3

Complementary medicine using natural product as antitumor is on the rise. Much research has been performed on Tualang Honey and it was shown to have therapeutic potential in wound healing, and antimicrobial activity and be antiproliferative against several cancer models such as human osteosarcoma (HOS), human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines.

To date, there was limited study on antileukemic properties of Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) Honey. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic effect of Tualang Honey on acute and chronic leukemia cell lines. Leukemia cell lines (K562 and MV4-11) and human mononuclear cell isolated from peripheral blood were grown in RPM1 1640 culture medium. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Tualang Honey. After incubation, the evaluation of viability and apoptosis was performed. The morphological changes of leukemia cells were the presence of cytoplasmic blebs followed by apoptotic bodies and round shape of cells. IC50 against K562 and MV4-11 was determined. Tualang Honey gave 53.9% and 50.6% apoptosis activity on K562 and MV4-11, respectively, while on human mononuclear cell it was 37.4%.

Tualang Honey has the apoptosis-inducing ability for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562 and MV4-11) cell lines.

Friday, November 27, 2015

Yili Dark Bee Propolis Eradicates Oral Cariogenic Biofilm

Effects of Yili dark bee propolis on oral cariogenic biofilm in vitro

[Article in Chinese]


To evaluate the effects of Yili dark bee propolis on the main cariogenic biofilm and mechanisms.


Susceptibilities to the ethanolic extract of propolis against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Streptococcus sobrinus (S. sobrinus), Streptococcus sanguis (S. sanguis), Actinomyces viscosus (A. viscosus), and Actinomyces naeslundii (A. naeslundii) were analyzed by crystal violet stain method to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC). The biofilm was initially cultivated for 24 h. Subsequently, the propolis groups with different concentration MBEC and initial pH 7.0 were cultured for 24 h. Moreover, the pH value was measured to evaluate the acid-producing ability of the tested plaque biofilm. The effects of propolis on the insoluble extracellular polysaccharide synthesis of S. mutans biofilm were evaluated by anthrone method.


The MBEC of Yili propolis on S. mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguis, A. viscosus, and A. naeslundii were 6.25, 1.56, 3.13, 0.78, and 0.78 mg.mL-1, respectively. Propolis could decrease the ΔpH of the tested plaque biofilm, and the differences between the control and propolis groups were statistically significant.


Yili propolis demonstrate remarkable eradicative effects on the cariogenic plaque biofilm, showing inhibition of the synthesis of biofilm-produced acids and insoluble extracellular polysaccharides.

Thursday, November 26, 2015

Honey Significantly Reduced Severity of Mucositis-Associated Pain

A Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluating the Role of Honey in Reducing Pain Due to Radiation Induced Mucositis in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

Indian J Palliat Care. 2015 Sep-Dec;21(3):268-273


There are various drugs tried for relieving pain associated with radiation-induced mucositis. This paper aims to study role of honey in relieving pain due to radiation induced mucositis in head and neck cancer patients receiving concomitant chemoradiation.


A randomized controlled trial on 78 subjects (40 in test group and 38 in control group) was undertaken to study the analgesic effect of honey, but the analysis of 69 patients was done as nine patients (four in test and five in control group) were lost to follow-up or left treatment in between the study. All patients were advised to do salt-soda and benzydamine mouth gargles, alternatively every 3 hours. Test group patients additionally received 20 ml honey three times a day during the entire course of radiation treatment and 3 months following radiation therapy (RT).


Honey significantly reduced the severity of mucositis associated pain and resulted in lesser treatment gaps and a decrease in overall radiotherapy treatment duration. None of the test group and majority of controls (51.5%) had severe pain score during the 7th week of RT. The same pattern was seen in the post-RT period. Mean pain score was significantly different in both groups during all weeks during and upto 6 weeks post-RT (mean score of 3.08 and 6.54 for test and control respectively at 7th week RT, P < 0.001).


Honey being a cheap, palatable, and natural medicament can be used for decreasing pain associated with radiation-induced mucositis in cancer patients.

Wednesday, November 25, 2015

Health Benefits of Bee Products Outlined

What's the buzz? Honey terms

From the Backyard Beekeepers Association Nov 23, 2015

Pollination: Agriculture depends greatly on the honeybee for pollination. Honeybees account for 80 percent of all insect pollination. Without such pollination, we would see a significant decrease in the yield of fruits and vegetables.

Pollen: Bees collect 66 pounds of pollen per year, per hive. Pollen is the male germ cells produced by all flowering plants for fertilization and plant embryo formation. The honeybee uses pollen as a food. Pollen is one of the richest and purest natural foods, consisting of up to 35 percent protein, 10 percent sugars, carbohydrates, enzymes, minerals, and vitamins A (carotenes), B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (nicotinic acid), B5 (panothenic acid), C (ascorbic acid), H (biotin) and R (rutine).

Honey: Honey is used by the bees for food all year round. There are many types, colors and flavors of honey, depending upon its nectar source. The bees make honey from the nectar they collect from flowering trees and plants. Honey is an easily digestible, pure food. Honey is hydroscopic and has antibacterial qualities. Eating local honey can fend off allergies.

Beeswax: Secreted from glands, beeswax is used by the honeybee to build honeycomb. It is used by humans in drugs, cosmetics, artists' materials, furniture polish and candles.

Propolis: Collected by honeybees from trees, the sticky resin is mixed with wax to make a sticky glue. The bees use this to seal cracks and repair their hive. It is used by humans as a health aid, and as the basis for fine wood varnishes.

Royal Jelly: The powerful, milky substance that turns an ordinary bee into a queen bee. It is made of digested pollen and honey or nectar mixed with a chemical secreted from a gland in a nursing bee's head. It commands premium prices rivaling imported caviar, and is used by some as a dietary supplement and fertility stimulant. It is loaded with all of the B vitamins...

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Indian Propolis Extract Protects Against Bone Marrow Toxicity

Mitigating effect of Indian propolis against mitomycin C induced bone marrow toxicity

Cytotechnology. 2015 Nov 21

A major drawback with cancer chemotherapy is its severe toxic effects on non-target tissues. Assessment of natural products for their protective effect against anticancer drugs-induced toxicity is gaining importance in cancer biology.

The present study was aimed at assessing the protective effect of hydroethanolic extract of Indian propolis (HEIP) against mitomycin C (MMC)-induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Swiss albino mice were injected with various doses of HEIP (100, 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 mg/kg b. wt., i.p) 1 h prior to MMC (8 mg/kg, i.p.) injection. The geno- and cyto-toxicities were evaluated in mice by performing bone marrow micronucleus and TUNEL assays. In vitro antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitory assays were carried out to understand the mechanism of the protective effects.

The significant increase in the frequency of micronculeated cells (12.51 ± 0.48), apoptotic cells (23.43 ± 1.86) and reduction in P/N ratio (0.69 ± 0.04) compared with control indicated the potential geno- and cytotoxic effects of MMC in bone marrow. Pretreatment with HEIP resulted in the significant recovery of the toxic effects induced by MMC. HEIP at 400 mg/kg b. wt. was found to be the optimum dose imparting the maximum protective effects. The in vitro antioxidant and lipid peroxidation inhibitory assays suggest that the extract possesses substantial free radical scavenging activities.

In conclusion, HEIP possesses substantial geno- and cyto-protective properties against MMC, which could be mediated through efficient free radical scavenging and inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation.

Monday, November 23, 2015

Honey: Health Benefits, Uses and Risks

Medical News Today, 11/16/2015

Honey is a sweet food made by bees using nectar from flowers. Bees first convert the nectar into honey by a process of regurgitation and evaporation, then store it as a primary food source in wax honeycombs inside the beehive. Honey can then be harvested from the hives for human consumption.

Honey is graded by color, with the clear, golden amber honey often at a higher retail price than darker varieties. Honey flavor will vary based on the types of flower from which the nectar was harvested.

Both raw and pasteurized forms of honey are available. Raw honey is removed from the hive and bottled directly, and as such will contain trace amounts of yeast, wax and pollen. Consuming local raw honey is believed to help with seasonal allergies due to repeated exposure to the pollen in the area. Pasteurized honey has been heated and processed to remove impurities.

This MNT Knowledge Center feature is part of a collection of articles on the health benefits of popular foods. It provides a nutritional breakdown of honey and an in-depth look at its possible health benefits, how to incorporate more honey into your diet and any potential health risks of consuming honey.

Contents of this article:

1.Nutritional breakdown of honey
2.Possible health benefits of consuming honey
3.How to incorporate more honey into your diet
4.Potential health risks of consuming honey

Sunday, November 22, 2015

Propolis May Help Treat Asthma

Evaluation of propolis, honey, and royal jelly in amelioration of peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model

Saudi J Biol Sci. 2015 Nov;22(6):780-788

Bee products have been used since ancient times to treat many diseases, including respiratory ailments. The present study aimed to examine the modulatory effect of honey, royal jelly, and propolis extract on peripheral blood leukocytes and lung inflammation in a mouse conalbumin-induced asthma model.

The mice in group I were not sensitised or treated; they were kept as controls. The mice in group II were sensitised and challenged with conalbumin. Twenty-four hours after the first challenge with antigen, the mice in group III received 0.5 mg/kg of dexamethasone intraperitoneally per day for 18 consecutive days and kept as positive controls. The mice in groups IV, V, and VI received 650, 1000, and 30 mg/kg of honey, royal jelly, and propolis (aqueous and ethanolic extract), respectively, once per day for 18 consecutive days. Blood was collected from all of the mice for white blood cell differentiation, and the lungs were removed for histopathological studies.

The groups treated with propolis extract exhibited considerable ameliorative effects against asthma, which might be explained by the flavonoids and phenolics found in propolis, which might have antioxidative effects. Otherwise, the sensitised and honey- or royal jelly-treated groups exhibited an increased incidence of asthma cascade events due to increased inflammatory cells. These results might be due to the immunostimulatory and vasodilatory effects of royal jelly and honey, which are antagonistic to bronchial asthma cases. Histopathological examination revealed that the sensitised treated propolis extract groups had significant decreases in inflammatory scores compared with other treatments and the sensitised untreated group. These results confirmed the previous data of peripheral blood cells.

Saturday, November 21, 2015

Honey Effective in Managing and Preventing Radiation-Induced Stomatitis

Honey and Radiation-Induced Stomatitis in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015 Oct 22;17(10):e19256


Stomatitis is a common oral complication which affects 100% of patients undergoing head and neck radiotherapy. Acute stomatitis might cause failure and delay radiotherapy. Attention to mouth hygiene, particularly using mouthwash, has a fundamental importance for these patients.


The current study came to addresses the effects of pure natural honey on radiation-induced stomatitis in patients with a variety of head and neck cancers.


The present single-blinded nonrandomized controlled trial was conducted on 105 patients undergoing radiotherapy due to head and neck cancer at the radiation unit of Shafa hospital in Kerman, Iran, from October 2012 to March 2012. The research groups were selected by writing the names of the protocols (the mouthwashes of chamomile, honey and the common caring protocol at ward which uses water) on three cubes. The first extracted cube was related to the chamomile mouthwash (Matrica), the second to the honey mouthwash and the last cube to the water mouthwash. The first experimental group (n = 35) gurgled a solution containing 20 mL diluted honey, the second group gurgled a solution containing German chamomile, and the 35 patients in the control group were advised to gurgle 20 mL water (the ward routine).


The results showed that severe stomatitis in groups of honey, chamomile and control was 0, 5.7%, and 17.6%, respectively. On the 14th day, it was 0, 0, and 17.6%, respectively. There were significant differences between the three groups regarding the severity of stomatitis in the 14th day (P < 0.001).


The application of natural honey is effective in managing and preventing radiation-induced stomatitis in patients with head and neck cancers.

Friday, November 20, 2015

Honey and Garlic Reduces Sperm Deterioration


Cryo Letters. 2015 Jul-Aug;36(4):243-251.

BACKGROUND: Sugars are the energetic source for sperm to maintain the metabolic process, and the antibiotics slow down sperm degradation.


To study the effects of rosemary honey as energy source and cryoprotectant in combination with garlic as a natural antibiotic on the quality of ram spermatozoa upon cooling.


The ejaculates from three rams were evaluated at different times during cooling to determine its post-dilution quality.


Glycerol and dimethylformamide in conjunction with honey and garlic significantly improve the survival of spermatozoa.


The addition of honey and garlic reduces sperm deterioration when stored at 4 degree C.

Thursday, November 19, 2015

Bee Venom May Help Treat Parkinson’s Disease

Bee Venom Alleviates Motor Deficits and Modulates the Transfer of Cortical Information through the Basal Ganglia in Rat Models of Parkinson’s Disease

PLOS ONE, 11/16/2015

Recent evidence points to a neuroprotective action of bee venom on nigral dopamine neurons in animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Here we examined whether bee venom also displays a symptomatic action by acting on the pathological functioning of the basal ganglia in rat PD models. Bee venom effects were assessed by combining motor behavior analyses and in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr, basal ganglia output structure) in pharmacological (neuroleptic treatment) and lesional (unilateral intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine injection) PD models.

In the hemi-parkinsonian 6-hydroxydopamine lesion model, subchronic bee venom treatment significantly alleviates contralateral forelimb akinesia and apomorphine-induced rotations. Moreover, a single injection of bee venom reverses haloperidol-induced catalepsy, a pharmacological model reminiscent of parkinsonian akinetic deficit.

This effect is mimicked by apamin, a blocker of small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK) channels, and blocked by CyPPA, a positive modulator of these channels, suggesting the involvement of SK channels in the bee venom antiparkinsonian action. In vivo electrophysiological recordings in the substantia nigra pars reticulata (basal ganglia output structure) showed no significant effect of BV on the mean neuronal discharge frequency or pathological bursting activity. In contrast, analyses of the neuronal responses evoked by motor cortex stimulation show that bee venom reverses the 6-OHDA- and neuroleptic-induced biases in the influence exerted by the direct inhibitory and indirect excitatory striatonigral circuits.

These data provide the first evidence for a beneficial action of bee venom on the pathological functioning of the cortico-basal ganglia circuits underlying motor PD symptoms with potential relevance to the symptomatic treatment of this disease.

Wednesday, November 18, 2015

Bee Venom May Help Treat Atherosclerosis, Skin Disease

The Protective Effect of Bee Venom on Fibrosis Causing Inflammatory Diseases 

Toxins 2015, 7(11), 4758-4772

Bee venom therapy is a treatment modality that may be thousands of years old and involves the application of live bee stings to the patient’s skin or, in more recent years, the injection of bee venom into the skin with a hypodermic needle. Studies have proven the effectiveness of bee venom in treating pathological conditions such as arthritis, pain and cancerous tumors.

However, there has not been sufficient review to fully elucidate the cellular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of bee venom and its components.

In this respect, the present study reviews current understanding of the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory properties of bee venom and its components in the treatment of liver fibrosis, atherosclerosis and skin disease.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Bee Products May Help Manage Autoimmune Diseases, Cancer, Alzheimer’s, HPV, Lyme Disease, Multiple Sclerosis, and Arthritis

Hacking Your Health With Bees
From raw honey to royal jelly and venom, new evidence suggests bees and their byproducts can help boost your immune system.

The Daily Beast, 11/14/2015

Apitherapy is the art of using bee products—everything from honey to venom—to have more energy and to control your biology. Modern science is now discovering the power of bee products, but we’re hardly the first people to use bees as a source of natural medicine. In fact, apitherapy may be one of the oldest biohacks around; its origins trace back to ancient Greece, Egypt, and China.

Studies show that bee products may help manage autoimmune diseases, cancer, Alzheimer’s, HPV, Lyme Disease, multiple sclerosis, and arthritis—bacteria in bee stomachs could even act as alternatives to antibiotics...

Monday, November 16, 2015

Propolis May Help Treat Naval Cavity Diseases

Propolis as lipid bioactive nano-carrier for topical nasal drug delivery

Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2015 Oct 31;136:908-917

Propolis shows therapeutic properties ascribed to the presence of some flavonoids, phenolic acids, and their esters; it is a natural multifunctional material, solid at room temperature, and composed mainly of resin and waxes.

We therefore used propolis as a lipid material to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs); SLNs are proposed bioactive medications for topical intranasal therapy. Suitable formulation parameters were studied and the SLNs obtained by the high shear homogenization method were characterized; a selected formulation was viscosized to increase the residence time. Dimensional, morphological, and solid-state characterizations of the formulated SLNs were performed. In vitro and ex vivo permeation tests of diclofenac sodium, the model drug, and polyphenols were carried out. The propolis amount and surfactant concentration represent the key parameters that affect nanoparticle properties in terms of size, drug and polyphenol content, and physical stability. Size dispersions of about 600nm and 0.4 PI were obtained, which do not change by increasing the viscosity. Drug is encapsulated in SLNs, as demonstrated by FTIR and DSC analyses. 

In vitro and ex vivo studies prove that drug and polyphenols do not cross the membranes; therefore, propolis-based SLNs could be used as delivery systems of diclofenac and flavonoids for the local treatment of nasal cavity diseases. Due to propolis composition, the proposed formulation could be used as a bioactive medication in which the carrier can exert a complementary effect with the loaded drug.

Sunday, November 15, 2015

Bee Venom Could Help Treat Colon Cancer

Anti-cancer effect of bee venom on colon cancer cell growth by activation of death receptors and inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B

Oncotarget. 2015 Oct 30

Bee venom (BV) has been used as a traditional medicine to treat arthritis, rheumatism, back pain, cancerous tumors, and skin diseases. However, the effects of BV on the colon cancer and their action mechanisms have not been reported yet.

We used cell viability assay and soft agar colony formation assay for testing cell viability, electro mobility shift assay for detecting DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and Western blotting assay for detection of apoptosis regulatory proteins.

We found that BV inhibited growth of colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. We also found that the expression of death receptor (DR) 4, DR5, p53, p21, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 was increased by BV treatment in a dose dependent manner (0-5 μg/ml). Consistent with cancer cell growth inhibition, the DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also inhibited by BV treatment.

Besides, we found that BV blocked NF-κB activation by directly binding to NF-κB p50 subunit. Moreover, combination treatment with BV and p50 siRNA or NF-κB inhibitor augmented BV-induced cell growth inhibition. However, p50 mutant plasmid (C62S) transfection partially abolished BV-induced cell growth inhibiton. In addition, BV significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo.

Therefore, these results suggested that BV could inhibit colon cancer cell growth, and these anti-proliferative effects may be related to the induction of apoptosis by activation of DR4 and DR5 and inhibition of NF-κB.

Saturday, November 14, 2015

Study: Honey May Help Treat Diabetes

Antidiabetic effect of honey feeding in noise induced hyperglycemic rat: involvement of oxidative stress

Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2015 Aug;18(8):745-51.


In this study the effect of oral administration of honey on serum glucose, lipids, stress oxidative markers, and morphology of langerhans islets in noise induced hyperglycemic rats was investigated.


Male Wistar rats were divided into control, hyperglycemic, honey treated control, and honey treated hyperglycemic groups. For induction of hyperglycemia, noise stress was used. Serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels were determined before the study and at 4(th) and 8(th) weeks after the study. Markers of oxidative stress in brain were also measured. Morphology of langerhans islets in four groups was evaluated using Gomori staining method.


Treatment of noise induced hyperglycemic rats with honey produced a hypoglycemic effect and appropriate changes regarding serum lipids in treated diabetic group at 4(th) and 8(th) weeks as compared to the control group. Meanwhile, honey treatment significantly ameliorated the increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reduced the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in brain. Histology of langerhans islets in hyperglycemic group showed a lower number and granularity of beta cells; honey treatment produced beneficial change in this respect.


Oral administration of honey in experimental model of diabetes showed a significant hypoglycemic effect and led to appropriate changes in serum lipid profiles.

Thursday, November 12, 2015

Antioxidant Potential of Yucatan Stingless Bee Honey


Nutr Hosp. 2015 Oct 1;32(4):1432-42

The present article provides a literature review about the biological potential of Melipona beecheii. The objective is to project some tendecies in research about nutraceutical aspects related to the bioactive compounds presents in the honey of this stingless bee species, known for its medicinal properties traditional, in the Yucatan Peninsula.

Currently, there is strong evidence that M. beecheii honey has bioactive compounds such as proteins, flavonoids and polyphenols with high antioxidant activity. The scientific evidence allows to propose to the honey of stingless bee species as a potential alternative for the obtention of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity in the Yucatan Peninsula and natural food being proposed to reduce some diseases associated with stress oxidative physiological human cells.

However, there is still information that explains such antioxidant activity, therefore, according to the literature reviewed, sees the need to address nutraceuticals and functional aspects correlated with the bioactive compounds present in this honey bee.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Honey, Green Tea Solution May Help Prevent Tooth Decay

Effect of Honey and Green Tea Solutions on Streptococcus mutans.

J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2015 Fall;39(5):435-441


The aim of this cross-sectional in vivo study was to assess the effect of green tea and honey solutions on the level of salivary Streptococcus mutans.


A convenient sample of 30 Saudi boys aged 7-10 years were randomly assigned into 2 groups of 15 each. Saliva sample was collected for analysis of level of S. mutans before rinsing. Commercial honey and green tea were prepared for use and each child was asked to rinse for two minutes using 10 mL of the prepared honey or green tea solutions according to their group. Saliva samples were collected again after rinsing. The collected saliva samples were prepared and colony forming unit (CFU) of S. mutans per mL of saliva was calculated.


The mean number of S. mutans before and after rinsing with honey and green tea solutions were 2.28* 108(2.622*108), 5.64 *107(1.03*108), 1.17*109(2.012*109) and 2.59*108 (3.668*108) respectively. A statistically significant reduction in the average number of S. mutans at baseline and post intervention in the children who were assigned to the honey (P = 0.001) and green tea (P = 0.001) groups was found.


A single time mouth rinsing with honey and green tea solutions for two minutes effectively reduced the number of salivary S. mutans of 7-10 years old boys.

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Bee Pollen from Southern Brazil a Good Source of Bioactive Compounds

Impact of origin on bioactive compounds and nutritional composition of bee pollen from southern Brazil: A screening study
Food Research International (Impact Factor: 2.82). 09/2015; 77

Bee pollen (BP) has been increasingly studied because it contains a wide variety of bioactive compounds, including vitamins.

Brazilian botanical diversity, together with the potential of local beekeeping production, makes BP'scapacity as a food source of bioactive compounds major focus for research. In this scenario, the objective of this study was to screen and evaluate the chemical composition, including antioxidant vitamins, of BP samples from southern Brazil, and to correlate them with their botanical origin.

Analyses of nutritional composition were performed to compare them with the quality parameters established by Brazilian and international regulations. Additionally, individual sugars and vitamins (C, E and pro-vitamin A) were quantified and microscopic analysis for taxon classification was performed to correlate with vitamins and nutritional composition.

The results of the chemical analysis showed that the samples were in accordance with the relevant regulations. The composition of vitamins and pollen types varied among the samples. Some BP could be classified as a source of a particular vitamin in a standard dose (25 g).

Lipid and protein content from Rio Grande do Sul presented higher mean values (pb0.05) compared with the other two states. Some correlations between chemical composition and botanical taxon were observed.

Principal component analysis showed that the samples from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Paraná presented similarities in terms of composition for each location. HCA and PLSDAwere not able to classify the samples based on the chemical markers used.

The analysis of vitamins confirmed that BP from this region can be a good source of antioxidant vitamins and that it can provide important nutritional information to food researchers and bioactive compounds for consumers.

Monday, November 09, 2015

Apitherapy for Beekeepers Course ​​November 21-22 in Canada

Date:  Sat-Sun ​​November 21-22, 2015
Time: 9 am - 5 pm both days
Location: Honeybee Center in Surrey​, B.C​.
Contact: Dr. Stefan Stangaciu
Email: Stefan Stangaciu

What you will learn:

Introduction to medicinal beekeeping

     - Focus on the issues that are important for the quality and effectiveness of beehive products
     - Use of ​alternatives to ​chemicals to treat bee diseases
    - Methods for processing and storage of beehive products relevant for apitherapy

Preparation of beehive products

     - Beehive products & herbs
     - Beehive products & essential oils
     - Beehive products & common foods

Properties and effects of beehive products including:

     -Pollen and bee bread
     - Bee venom
     - Honey
     - Propolis and beeswax
     - Royal jelly and apilarnil

​​Using beehive products to prevent and treat various ailments to beekeepers

What to Bring:

Laptop or notebook to take notes.  Attendees will receive an information package to take home. We also suggest bringing your own coffee mug.

Dr. Stefan Stangaciu - ​International lecturer on medicinal beekeeping​ and apitherapy​ in Romania and other countries. Dr. Stefan has practiced in areas of preventative medicine and natural therapies with emphasis on the use of bee products (i.e. honey, propolis, bee venom, royal jelly, bee pollen, bee bread, ​A​pila​rn​il, etc.).  He has conducted clinical studies on apitherapy, acupuncture, and acupressure applied for the diseases of different patient.

Sunday, November 08, 2015

Malaysian Tualang Honey May Help Treat Leukemia

Antileukemic Effect of Tualang Honey on Acute and Chronic Leukemia Cell Lines

BioMed Research International
Volume 2015 (2015)

Complementary medicine using natural product as antitumor is on the rise. Much research has been performed on Tualang Honey and it was shown to have therapeutic potential in wound healing, and antimicrobial activity and be antiproliferative against several cancer models such as human osteosarcoma (HOS), human breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. To date, there was limited study on antileukemic properties of Tualang (Koompassia excelsa) Honey.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the antileukemic effect of Tualang Honey on acute and chronic leukemia cell lines. Leukemia cell lines (K562 and MV4-11) and human mononuclear cell isolated from peripheral blood were grown in RPM1 1640 culture medium. The cells were incubated with increasing concentrations of Tualang Honey. After incubation, the evaluation of viability and apoptosis was performed. The morphological changes of leukemia cells were the presence of cytoplasmic blebs followed by apoptotic bodies and round shape of cells. IC50 against K562 and MV4-11 was determined. Tualang Honey gave 53.9% and 50.6% apoptosis activity on K562 and MV4-11, respectively, while on human mononuclear cell it was 37.4%.

Tualang Honey has the apoptosis-inducing ability for acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (K562 and MV4-11) cell lines.

Saturday, November 07, 2015

Red Propolis May Help Treat Nerve Injuries

Hydroalcoholic extract of red propolis promotes functional recovery and axon repair after sciatic nerve injury in rats

Pharm Biol. 2015 Oct 29:1-12


Peripheral axon injury and degeneration are often mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation. The hydroalcoholic extract of the red propolis (HERP) has attracted great attention because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.


The objective of this work is to study the effect of HERP on nerve repair and functional recovery after sciatic nerve injury (SNI) in rats.


The chemical markers in HERP were identified using high-resolution mass spectroscopy. After axonotmesis of sciatic nerve, ibuprofen (IBP) and HERP treatments were orally administered for 28 d. Behavioural tests were performed weekly after SNI. The myelinated axon number was counted using morphometric analysis.


The compounds found in HERP were pinocembrin, formononetin, vestitol, and biochanin A. The animals that underwent SNI showed a significant decrease in motor function based on the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scale and sciatic functional index compared with sham animals until 7 d after the surgery (p < 0.05). After 14 and 21 d, the SNI groups treated with either HERP or IBP showed significant improvement (p < 0.01), and the SNI group treated with HERP 10 mg/kg showed accelerated motor recovery compared with the other groups (p < 0.01). SNI caused also a reduction in the myelinated axon counts, and treatment with HERP 10 mg/kg induced a significant increase in the number of myelinated fibres compared with all other groups.


HERP promoted regenerative responses and accelerated functional recovery after sciatic nerve crush. Thus, it can be considered to be a new strategy or complementary therapy for treating nerve injuries.

Friday, November 06, 2015

Australian Propolis Shows Antimicrobial Activity

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) propolis from subtropical eastern Australia

Naturwissenschaften. 2015 Dec;102(11-12):68

Propolis is a material manufactured by bees and contains beeswax, bee salivary secretions and plant resins. Propolis preparations have been used for millennia by humans in food, cosmetics and medicines due to its antibacterial effects. Within the hive, propolis plays an important role in bees' health, with much of its bioactivity largely dependent on the plant resins the bees select for its production. Few chemical studies are available on the chemistry of propolis produced by Australian honeybees (Apis mellifera, Apidae).

This study aimed to determine the chemical composition as well as in vitro antimicrobial effects of propolis harvested from honeybees in subtropical eastern Australia. Honeybee propolis was produced using plastic frames and multiple beehives in two subtropical sites in eastern Australia. Methanolic extracts of propolis were analysed by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection and high-resolution mass spectrometry (ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-UV-high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HR-MS/MS)) and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

The resulting chemical data were dereplicated for compound characterisation. The two crude extracts in abs. ethanol were tested in vitro by the agar diffusion and broth dilution methods, using a phenol standard solution as the positive control and abs. ethanol as the negative control. Chemical constituents were identified to be pentacyclic triterpenoids and C-prenylated flavonoids, including Abyssinoflavanone VII, Propolin C and Nymphaeol C.

The two propolis crude extracts showed bactericidal effects at the minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.37-2.04 mg mL(-1) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. However, the extracts were inactive against Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 13883 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The antistaphylococcal potential of propolis was discussed, also in relation to honeybees' health, as it warrants further investigations on the social and individual immunities of Australian honeybees.

Thursday, November 05, 2015

Brazilian Propolis May Help Treat Obesity

Brazilian propolis extract increases leptin expression in mouse adipocytes

Biomed Res. 2015;36(5):343-6

We investigated the anti-obesity effects of Brazilian green propolis ethanol extract using a mouse model of obesity. Repeated intraperitoneal injection of propolis (100 mg/kg twice a week) caused feeding suppression in C57BL/6 mice, whereas this treatment had negligible effects on C57BL/6 ob/ob mice. Since C57BL/6 ob/ob mice have a missense mutation in the Lep gene, leptin is likely to contribute to the propolis-induced feeding suppression.

We found that propolis treatment indeed clearly increased leptin mRNA production in the visceral adipose tissues. Moreover, propolis extract directly elevated leptin expression in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Artepillin C, an important organic compound found in Brazilian green propolis, failed to induce leptin mRNA in 3T3-L1 cells.

Compounds other than artepillin C in Brazilian propolis must thus cause leptin induction in adipocytes, possibly resulting in the suppression of feeding and obesity.

Wednesday, November 04, 2015

Malaysian Melaleuca Honey is Potential Antistaphylococcal Agent


Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015 May;46(3):472-9

Honey is well-known for its antioxidant properties due to the presence of phytochemical compounds, which are also involved in antibacterial activities.

In this study, properties (total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing-antioxidant power, reducing sugar content, and pH) of Malaysian Melaleuca honey were investigated for their antistaphylococcal activity, against both methicillin-sensitive (MSSA) and resistant (MRSA) Staphylococcus aureus strains using a hole-in-plate diffusion method.

The outcome revealed there is a significant positive correlation between the antistaphylococcal activity and increase in honey concentration [20%-80% (v/v) in distilled water], which also correlated with each of the above mentioned parameter in honey, except for pH value that shows negative correlation. Furthermore, there was no difference in susceptibility to Melaleuca honey between MSSA and MRSA strains.

Thus, in addition to being an antioxidant product, Melaleuca honey has a potential as a natural antistaphylococcal agent.

Tuesday, November 03, 2015

Brazilian Honey Protects Against Hypoxia

Brazilian Pampa Biome Honey Protects Against Mortality, Locomotor Deficits and Oxidative Stress Induced by Hypoxia/Reperfusion in Adult Drosophila melanogaster

Neurochem Res. 2015 Oct 30

We aimed to investigate the potential beneficial effects of the Brazilian Pampa biome honey in a Drosophila-based hypoxia model. Adult flies were reared in standard medium in the presence or absence of honey (at a final concentration of 10 % in medium). Then, control flies (4 % sucrose in medium) and honey-treated flies were submitted to hypoxia.

Subsequently, flies were analyzed for mortality, neurolocomotor behavior (negative geotaxis), mitochondrial/oxidative stress parameters and expression of hypoxia/stress related genes by RT-qPCR. The HPLC analysis revealed the presence of phenolics and flavonoids in the studied honey. Caffeic acid was the major compound followed by p-coumaric acid and kaempferol. The presence of such compounds was correlated with a substantial antioxidant activity in vitro. Flies subjected to hypoxia presented marked mortality, locomotor deficits and changes in oxidative stress and mitochondrial activity parameters.

Honey treatment was able to completely block mortality and locomotor phenotypes. In addition, honey was able to reverse ROS production and hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activity. Hypoxia also induced an up-regulation in mRNA expression of Sima (HIF-1), NFκβ, NRF2, HOX, AKT-1, InR, dILP2, dILP5 and HSP27. Honey treatment was not able to modulate changes in the tested genes, indicating that its protective effects involve additional mechanisms other than transcriptional activity of hypoxia-driven adaptive responses in flies.

Our results demonstrated, for the first time, the beneficial effects of honey against the deleterious effects of hypoxia/reperfusion processes in a complex organism.

Monday, November 02, 2015

Bee Venom and Manuka Honey Facial Mask

Formulated with powerful ingredients, this facial mask helps to improve elasticity, reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and combats free radicals, protecting skin from future harm.

Sunday, November 01, 2015

Desiccation of Chronic Wounds Colonized with Biofilm Via Exposure Using Honey Improves Wound Healing

The use of desiccation to treat staphylococcus aureus biofilm infected wounds

Wound Repair Regen. 2015 Oct 31

Chronic wounds colonized with biofilm present a major burden to our healthcare system. While the current paradigm for wound healing is to maintain a moist environment, we sought to evaluate the effects of desiccation, and the ability of honey to desiccate wounds, on wound healing characteristics in Staphylococcus aureus biofilm wounds.

In vivo biofilm wound healing after exposure to open-air desiccation, honey, molasses, and saline was analyzed using a rabbit ear model of S. aureus biofilm wounds previously developed by our group. Wound morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy and granulation tissue deposition was measured using light microscopy with hematoxylin and eosin staining.

Viable bacterial counts in rabbit ear biofilm wounds and scabs were measured using a drop dilution method. In vitro S. aureus growth curves were established using tryptic soy broth (TSB) containing honey and glycerol. Gene expression analysis of rabbit ear wounds was performed using RT-qPCR. Rabbit ear S. aureus biofilm wounds exposed to open-air desiccation, honey, and molasses developed a dry scab, which displaced the majority of biofilm bacteria off of the wound bed.

Wounds treated with open-air desiccation, honey, and molasses expressed lower levels of the inflammatory markers TNFα and IL-1β at post-operative day 12 compared to wounds treated with saline, and had increased levels of granulation tissue formation. In vitro growth of S. aureus in TSB was inhibited by the presence of honey to a greater extent than by the presence of osmolality-matched glycerol.

Desiccation of chronic wounds colonized with biofilm via exposure to open air or honey leads to improved wound healing by decreasing bacterial burden and inflammation, and increasing granulation tissue formation.

The ability of honey to help heal chronic wounds is at least in part due to its ability to desiccate bacterial biofilm, but other factors clearly contribute.